Children Must be Taught How to Think, not What to Think


Thesis Statement: Equipping children with the ability to think critically is paramount in empowering them to thrive in an ever-evolving world.


I. Defining the Changing Landscape of Education

II. Importance of Critical Thinking: Nurturing Independent Thought

III. Benefits of Teaching Critical Thinking to Children

a. Empowers Independent Thought

b. Adaptability in the Face of Change

c. Effective Decision-Making

d. Improved Problem Solving and Global Competence

e. Preparation for the Future: Problem Solving and Innovation

IV. Implementing Critical Thinking in Education

a. Curricular Reforms

b. Teacher Training

c. Community Involvement

d. Encourage Self-Reflection

e. Question-Centric Learning

f. Discussion and Debate

g. Real-World Applications

V. Challenges in Shifting the Paradigm and Way Forward

a. Resistance to Change

b. Assessment Methods

c. Resource Constraints


Essay Brief (You can Expand on it Using Your Own Ideas, Examples, Jargons, etc)

In the realm of education, the timeless quest for knowledge has long followed a well-trodden path—a path that, for generations, has focused on the delivery of established facts, structured curricula, and predetermined ways of thinking. However, as the global landscape continues to evolve at an unprecedented pace, the purpose of education itself is being redefined. There is a resounding call for a transformation in the way we approach teaching, from the traditional model of dictating what to think to a more contemporary, forward-looking approach—teaching children how to think.

The shift from an instructional to a facilitative approach in education holds the promise of nurturing young minds to become critical, independent thinkers who are prepared to tackle the challenges of a rapidly changing world. It is pertinent to delve into the rationale behind this shift in educational paradigms, discuss the benefits of nurturing critical thinking skills in children, and explore the methods and challenges of implementing this approach in education. At its core, this essay underscores the fundamental thesis that equipping children with the ability to think critically is paramount in empowering them to thrive in an ever-evolving world, a perspective that resonates with the words of Nobel laureate Albert Einstein: “Education is not the learning of facts, but the training of the mind to think.

The traditional model of education, where students are passive recipients of knowledge, is increasingly being challenged. In an era characterized by the proliferation of information, globalization, and rapidly evolving technologies, rote memorization and standardized tests alone are insufficient. Students need to learn how to think critically, engage with complex problems, and adapt to changing circumstances. This shift is not just a global trend but also a pressing need for countries like Pakistan.

The benefits of teaching children how to think independently are manifold and hold true on a global scale. However, the imperative to nurture critical thinking skills is especially resonant in a country like Pakistan.

In Pakistan, as in many parts of the world, fostering independent thought is paramount. Encouraging children to question, explore, and develop their own perspectives can help break free from conventional wisdom and outdated beliefs, thus empowering them to chart their own course in a rapidly changing world.

The global landscape is marked by unprecedented change. From technological disruptions to shifts in economic and political paradigms, students must be equipped with the skills to adapt and thrive in this evolving environment.

In a world replete with choices and complexities, the ability to think critically and make well-informed decisions is invaluable. Teaching children how to think equips them with the skills necessary for navigating a world where choices often lack clear-cut answers.

In Pakistan, as a nation that is increasingly interconnected with the rest of the world, nurturing critical thinking skills is crucial. A global perspective and the ability to engage in global discussions are essential for the country’s future leaders and thinkers.

Critical thinking is the cornerstone of problem-solving and innovation. Pakistan, like any other country, relies on innovative solutions to address its unique challenges, whether in healthcare, education, or governance.

In Pakistan, efforts to promote critical thinking are already underway. A growing number of educators and institutions are advocating for the inclusion of critical thinking in the curriculum. Here are some methods to implement this approach effectively:

Pakistani educational institutions are gradually incorporating critical thinking skills into the curriculum, promoting inquiry-based learning, and providing students with opportunities to engage in discussions, debates, and problem-solving activities.

Equipping teachers with the necessary skills and tools to nurture critical thinking in students is vital. Professional development programs are being designed to empower educators in this regard.

Engaging parents and communities in understanding the importance of critical thinking can create a more supportive environment for its development.

It is pertinent to teach students to reflect on their thought processes, helping them understand their own thinking patterns and biases.

Encourage students to ask questions, fostering curiosity and inquiry-based learning.

Promote open discussions and debates in the classroom, encouraging students to consider multiple viewpoints.

Connect classroom learning to real-world scenarios, enabling students to apply their critical thinking skills.

While the shift towards teaching children how to think is promising, challenges persist. Resource constraints, resistance to change within educational systems, and the need for updated assessment methods are among the hurdles that need to be addressed.

However, the benefits of nurturing critical thinking skills are undeniable. Pakistan, in its journey to promote this shift, can pave the way for a generation of empowered, informed, and adaptable individuals who are not just recipients of knowledge but active participants in shaping the future of their nation.

In a world where information is at our fingertips and change is constant, education must evolve. The transition from teaching what to think to teaching how to think is not just a progressive trend; it’s a global imperative, and Pakistan is no exception. As Nobel laureate Bertrand Russell once eloquently put it, “The essence of the liberal outlook is a belief that men should be free to question anything if they can support their questioning by solid arguments.” It is in nurturing this spirit of inquiry, critical thinking, and independent thought that Pakistan, like all nations, will find the path to a brighter and more empowered future.

css special essay 2023 children must be taught how to think, not what to think

Pakistani Women Have the Same Chances as Men


Thesis Statement: Gender equality is not just an aspiration but an indispensable goal for Pakistan, where every citizen, regardless of gender, should have the same opportunities to excel, contribute, and lead in various domains.


I. The Changing Status of Women in Pakistan

II. Progress Made in Gender Equality

a. Educational Attainment

b. Political Participation

c. Workforce Participation

d. Entrepreneurship

III. Challenges in Achieving Gender Equality

a. Cultural Norms and Stereotypes

b. Violence Against Women

c. Economic Disparities

d. Underrepresentation in Leadership Roles

IV. The Path Forward: Striving for Gender Equality

a. Changing Cultural Norms

b. Legal Reforms

c. Economic Empowerment

d. Leadership and Political Involvement


Essay Brief (You can Expand on it Using Your Own Ideas, Examples, Jargons, etc)

In the heart of South Asia, Pakistan is a nation of immense diversity, characterized by a rich tapestry of cultures, languages, and traditions. Within this dynamic mosaic, one facet that has been steadily evolving is the role and status of Pakistani women. While the progress has been undeniable, the question of whether Pakistani women truly enjoy the same opportunities as their male counterparts lingers, beckoning an exploration into the state of gender equality in this multifaceted nation.

Gender equality, a global imperative for a just and prosperous society, is a topic that holds particular significance in Pakistan. This essay embarks on a journey through the changing landscape of gender equality, scrutinizing the milestones achieved, the enduring challenges faced, and the path forward to ensure that Pakistani women have equal opportunities as men. At its heart, this essay champions the thesis that gender equality is not just an aspiration but an indispensable goal for Pakistan, a nation where the potential of every citizen, irrespective of gender, should be celebrated and harnessed to contribute to the country’s growth and progress.

Pakistan, like many nations, has witnessed a remarkable transformation in the role and status of women. In various facets of life, be it politics, education, the workforce, or entrepreneurship, women have consistently shattered stereotypes and redefined their boundaries, positioning themselves as vital contributors to Pakistan’s progress.

The progress achieved in Pakistan concerning gender equality is heartening and includes significant advancements in educational attainment, political participation, workforce participation and entrepreneurship.

Girls’ and women’s access to education has improved, with rising enrollment rates and women now occupying prominent roles in academia.

The political arena in Pakistan has seen a substantial increase in female representation at both the national and local levels.

A growing number of women have ventured into the workforce, playing a pivotal role in the nation’s economic development.

Women in Pakistan are breaking the barriers of the business world, driving economic growth through entrepreneurship and leadership.

Yet, even in the face of significant progress, formidable challenges still obstruct the path to full gender equality in Pakistan through various outdated cultural norms and gender stereotypes, violence against women (VAW), economic disparities and underrepresentation in leadership roles.

Long-established cultural norms and gender stereotypes remain deeply entrenched, hindering the realization of equal opportunities for women. Pakistan remains one of the most male-dominated societies in the world, and women still tend to be portrayed or stigmatised as subordinates. In the patriarchal culture of Pakistan, women are often limited to doing domestic work and forced to hide the talents and skills they possess.

Gender-based violence continues to be a pressing concern, exacting a heavy toll on the physical and psychological well-being of countless women. It is another type of gender-based violence observed in Pakistani society. It is mostly faced by the victim in the form of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse. According to Pakistan’s demographic and health survey, 39% of women between the ages of 15 and 49 are physically and emotionally abused by their spouses.

Wage disparities, limited access to economic resources, and underrepresentation in certain industries perpetuate economic disparities between men and women.

Women are conspicuously underrepresented in leadership positions, both in the public and private sectors.

The journey towards achieving gender equality in Pakistan requires a multifaceted approach that encompasses changing cultural norms, advocating for legal reforms by government, upholding economic empowerment and championing for leadership and political involvement for women.

Initiatives aimed at raising awareness and challenging traditional norms through educational campaigns and community engagement are paramount.

Implementing and vigorously enforcing laws that protect women’s rights, particularly in cases of violence and discrimination, is a crucial step. According to the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, 898 women, including girls, were killed in the name of honor in 2014. The numbers have decreased to 277 in 2020. However, there are many unreported cases of honor killing in the remote rural regions of Pakistan. Besides, 1 out of 10 women is a victim of violence during pregnancy, according to the same survey. Another study by the United Nations Population Fund found that 70% of married women in Pakistan have experienced some form of physical or sexual violence from their husbands. According to the Aurat Foundation, there was a 200% increase in cases of domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Encouraging women’s participation in the workforce, supporting female entrepreneurs, and closing wage gaps are critical for both economic growth and gender equality.

Advocating for the active participation of women in leadership roles and political spheres ensures that the nation benefits from a diverse representation of its population.

The progress made in the journey towards gender equality for Pakistani women is noteworthy and commendable. Yet, the work is far from over. Gender equality is not only a matter of social justice but also an imperative for a nation’s comprehensive development and prosperity.

“No nation can rise to a height of glory unless your women are side by side with you”
– [Muhammad Ali Jinnah]

In Pakistan, as in all countries, the path to gender equality is not just an aspiration; it is an essential goal. Gender equality signifies a society where every citizen, regardless of gender, has the same opportunities to excel, contribute, and lead in a variety of domains. As former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto aptly noted, “Democracy is the best revenge.” In the context of gender equality, it can be said that gender equality is the best revenge against inequality, discrimination, and injustice. Pakistan, like all nations, stands to flourish when the potential of every citizen, women and men alike, is celebrated and harnessed to contribute to the country’s progress and growth.

Globalization: An End to Austerity


Thesis Statement: Globalization is a driving force behind the gradual end of austerity policies and offers a fresh perspective on economic governance in an ever-changing world.


I. Austerity Policies: An Overview

II. The Era of Austerity and Globalization  

III. Challenges and Criticisms of Austerity Policies

a. Social Impact

b. Economic Impact

c. Political Backlash

IV. Globalization and Its Impact on Austerity

a. Interconnected Economies

b. Global Supply Chains

c. Financial Markets

d. Political Realignment

V. How Globalization is Leading to Austerity in Decline?

a. Shift in Political Priorities

b. Policy Alternatives

c. Global Pandemic Response

d. Reevaluation of Economic Models


Essay Brief (You can Expand on it Using Your Own Ideas, Examples, Jargons, etc)

‘Never let a good crisis go to waste’, said Winston Churchill after World War II during the formation of the United Nations – the pinnacle of world nations as a global village. The world stands at a pivotal juncture, where the forces of globalization are reshaping our economic, technological, and sociopolitical landscapes in unprecedented ways. These global transformations have not only revolutionized the way we conduct business and engage with information but have also begun to reframe the age-old paradigm of austerity in economic governance. Globalization has impacted the marginalized communities especially women, in a wide range of ways. Some benefits include global pressure on improving women’s rights and quality of life, increased per capita income, standard of living and enhanced, in individual nations, greater economic opportunities, and increased political representation. This essay embarks on a journey through the complex dynamics of globalization and its profound influence on economic policies, particularly the concept of austerity. In this exploration, we delve into the evolution of austerity measures, the challenges they have posed, and how the tide of globalization may be instrumental in eroding their dominance. The central thesis of this essay asserts that globalization is a driving force behind the gradual end of austerity policies and offers a fresh perspective on economic governance in an ever-changing world.

Austerity policies, historically rooted in principles of fiscal conservatism, have long served as a tool to reduce budget deficits and public debt. These measures entail cutting government spending, increasing taxes, and often implementing structural reforms.

The early 21st century bore witness to the widespread adoption of austerity measures, predominantly in response to the 2008 financial crisis and the subsequent Eurozone crisis. Governments worldwide embraced austerity as a means to restore economic stability, regain the trust of financial markets, and appease the concerns of international creditors.

While austerity measures have achieved certain short-term fiscal objectives, they have not been without their fair share of challenges and criticisms:

Austerity often places a heavy burden on society, as reductions in public services, welfare, and public sector jobs can lead to increased social inequalities and social unrest.

Critics argue that austerity measures can hamper economic growth, particularly during periods of recession, as reduced government spending has a dampening effect on aggregate demand.

In numerous instances, austerity policies have triggered political backlash, fueling the rise of populist movements and undermining the trust placed in established political parties and institutions.

The emergence of globalization, characterized by the intensification of cross-border flows of capital, goods, services, and information, has introduced several compelling dynamics that challenge the austerity paradigm.

In an increasingly globalized world, economies are profoundly interconnected. Austerity measures enacted in one country can have cascading spillover effects on others, potentially exacerbating economic challenges regionally or globally.

The era of globalization has ushered in intricate supply chains that underpin many industries. Austerity measures that disrupt these chains can have far-reaching economic consequences, affecting not only domestic markets but also those of trading partners.

Global financial markets respond swiftly to policy changes, and austerity measures can lead to market volatility and capital flight, disrupting economic stability both at home and abroad.

The political landscape is evolving in response to the forces of globalization. New political priorities center around issues of income inequality, economic justice, and climate change, often at odds with the principles of austerity.

The influence of austerity policies has been waning in recent years, with several factors contributing to their decline.

New political leaders and movements have emphasized social justice, climate action, and income redistribution, often diverging from the principles of austerity.

Policymakers are increasingly exploring alternative strategies, such as targeted public investments, green infrastructure, and progressive taxation, to stimulate economic growth and address contemporary societal challenges.

The COVID-19 pandemic prompted many countries to embrace fiscal stimulus packages of unprecedented scale, marking a notable departure from austerity measures during times of crisis.

Economists and policy experts are reevaluating traditional economic models, questioning the wisdom of austerity during economic downturns and recognizing the need for adaptability and resilience in a fast-changing global landscape.

As globalization continues to reshape our world, the conventional wisdom of austerity policies is being profoundly challenged. The interconnected nature of modern economies, coupled with the emergence of new political priorities and alternative policy options, suggests that austerity may be on the decline. Globalization has ushered in a broader perspective on economic and political challenges, highlighting the need for policies that prioritize economic stability, equity, and sustainability.

In a world marked by rapid technological advancements and global interconnectivity, the role of austerity policies is shifting. This essay argues that globalization is instrumental in transforming the landscape of economic governance, offering new approaches that prioritize resilience, inclusivity, and adaptability in the face of dynamic global challenges. As we navigate this rapidly changing world, the end of austerity signifies a shift towards more flexible and inclusive strategies that better suit our evolving global landscape. In the words of American economist Paul Romer, “A crisis is a terrible thing to waste.” Globalization challenges us to reimagine economic policy and move towards a future where austerity is replaced by more adaptive and inclusive strategies that better serve our rapidly evolving global reality.

‘Alone we can do so little, together we can move mountains’ – [Abraham Lincoln]

Globalization: An End to Austerity css special essay 2023